Chronology, 1776-1830: Native America

 

 

 

Chronology, 1776-1830: Native America

 

 1776-78

James Cook (England) explores the Pacific Northwest.

1778

Treaty between United States and Delaware Indians, the first United States and Indian treaty, is negotiated in which Delaware tribe is offered the prospect of statehood.

1778

Iroquois Indians under Joseph Brant and British regulars attack American settlers on the western New York and Pennsylvania frontiers (Cherry Valley and Wyoming Valley massacres). In 1779, the Americans launch a counteroffensive under Generals Sullivan and Clinton, and Colonel Brodhead that lays waste to Indian towns and crops, and breaks the power of the Iroquois League.

1778

Peter Pond (Canada) explores the Canadian Plains and Rockies.

c. 1780

Great Lakes Indians develop ribbonwork style of dress, using European materials. The craft spreads south and westward.

1780-1800

Smallpox and measles among Indians in Texas and New Mexico. In 1782-83, a smallpox epidemic among Sanpoils of Washington.

1781-89

Under the Articles of Confederation defining federal and state relationships, it is accepted in principle that the central government should regulate Indian affairs and trade.

1782

Christian Delaware Indians massacred in Ohio at Gnadenhutten.

1783

Continental Congress issues a proclamation warning against squatting on Indian lands.

1784

Congress orders the War Office to provide militia troops to assist commissioners in their negotiations with Indians. In 1786, the secretary of War is made responsible for Indian affairs. In 1789, Congress establishes a Department of War and formally grants the secretary of War authority over Indian affairs.

1784

North West Company is chartered in Montreal, to compete with the Hudson's Bay Company.

1787

Northwest Ordinance calls for Indian rights, the establishment of reservations, and sanctity of tribal lands, echoing the British Proclamation of 1763, but it also sets guidelines for the development of the Old Northwest, leading to increased white settlement.

1787-89

In the Constitution drawn up in 1787, ratified by the required number of states (nine) by 1788, and put into effect in 1789, the federal government alone is given the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with Indian tribes.

1789-93

Alexander Mackenzie (Canada), seeking northern river route to the Pacific Ocean, discovers the river now bearing his name and travels to Arctic Ocean. On a second expedition he completes first overland journey across North America north of Mexico, making contact with many tribes.

1790

Spain signs the Nootka Convention, ceding the Pacific Northwest to England and the United States.

1790-94

Little Turtle's War, involving many tribes of the Old Northwest. In 1794, the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

1790-99

Four Trade and Intercourse Acts regulate Indian commerce and create the "factory system" of government trading houses. An informal Indian Department within the War Department is responsible for enforcing these regulations. In 1802, a new Trade and Intercourse Act, a continuation of the four earlier acts, becomes federal law.

1791-93

George Vancouver (england) explores the Pacific Northwest.

1792

Robert Gray and William Broughton (U.S.) sails up the Columbia River.

1794

Canadian Jay Treaty guarantees Mohawk Indians the right to travel unrestrictedly between the United States and Canada.

1797

Smallpox epidemic among Indians of Mexico.

1791-1811

David Thompson (Canada) explores the Canadian and American West.

1799

Russian American Fur Company chartered under impetus of the traders Gregory Shelikov and Alexander Baranov.

1799

Handsome Lake, a Seneca chief, founds the Longhouse religion.

c. 1800

Silverwork becomes widespread among the Indians of the Northeast, eventually reaching the Indians of the Southwest.

1892

Federal law prohibits the sale of liquor to Indians.

1802

Congress appropriates funds to "civilize and educate" the Indians.

1802-67

Tlingits resist Russian incursions into their territory.

1803

Louisiana Purchase by the United States from France (who had gained the territory back from Spain two years before) adds a large Indian population to the United States. In 1804, the Louisiana Territory Act shows the intent of the United States to move eastern Indians west of the Mississippi.

1803-06

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark Expedition opens the American West.

1805-06

Zebulon Pike (U.S.) expeditions to source of the Mississippi River and the Rockies.

1805-20

Simon Fraser (Canada) explores river now bearing his name, and he becomes the first white man to visit the Carrier tribe.

1806

Office of Superintendent of Indian Trade is established in the War Department under the secretary of War, to administer federal Indian trading houses.

1808

American Fur Company is chartered by John Astor to compete with Canadian fur trade. In 1810-12, an Astorian overland western expedition established trade relations with Indians.

1809

The St. Louis Missouri Fur Company is charted by the Chouteau family.

1809

Treaty of Fort Wayne. General William Henry Harrison obtains 2 1/2 million acres from Indians in Ohio and Indiana.

1809-11

Tecumseh's Rebellion. Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, endeavors to unite tribes of the Old Northwest, South, and the Mississippi Valley against the United States. His brother, Tenskwatawa, is defeated at Tippecanoe in 1811.

1809-21

Sequoyah single-handedly creates a Cherokee syllabic alphabet so that his people's language can be written.

1812-15

War of 1812 between the United States and England. Tecumseh, brigadier general for the British, is killed in 1813.

1812-41

Russians maintain Fort Ross in northwestern California, Pomo Indian country.

1813-14

Creek War in the Southeast. In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, Andrew Jackson strips Creeks of their land.

1816

The Selkirk incident between the Metis and settlers in the Red River Valley of Canada over farmland.

1817-18

First Seminole war in Southeast. Andrew Jackson invades Florida in a punitive expedition against the Indians. In 1819, Spain cedes Florida to the United States.

1819-24

Kickapoo Resistance to removal from the Illinois Country.

1821

Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company merge.

1821

Mexican Independence from Spain. In 1824, Mexico becomes a federal republic.

1822

Office of Indian Trade and Indian trading houses (the "factory system") are abolished by Congress.

1822

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft is appointed Indian agent and begins his ethnological research of Indians.

1824

Bureau of Indian Affairs is organized as part of the War Department. In 1832, it is formally recognized by a law of Congress.