The Nguni Kingdoms
By the late 18th=  century:  Northern Nguni Chiefdoms have merged into three main kingdoms, the Mthethwa, Ndwande and = Ngwane.
These kingdoms were a result of  the absorption of smaller chiefdoms in competition for the same scarce resources caused by drought and the population increase due to cultivation of American maize.
•<= /span>
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The Mfecane
•<= /span>Originates in the southeastern lowveld, east of the Drakensberg mountains.
In the period (1816-1819) intensive warfare between Nguni Kingdoms of Mtheth= wa, Ndwande and Ngwane occurs.
•<= /span>Sobhuza’s Ngwane are expelled north into Pon= gola Valley.
•<= /span>The final battle between the Mthethwa and the Ndwa= nde results in the death of Dingi= swayo (the leader of the Mthethwa) and the near = defeat of the Mthethwa Federation, which included = the Minor chiefdom of the Zulu.
•<= /span>Shaka ( of the Zulu) will emerge as the new leader= of the Mthethwa and eventually use his regiments to drive the Ndwande north of the = of the Pongola and the Ngoni into eastern central Africa.
•<= /span>This will result in the Rise of the Zulu Kingdom.&= #13;
•<= /span>
•<= /span>
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Shaka a= nd the rise of the Zulu Kingdom<= /span>
BY 1819, Shaka establishes himself as the ruler of= a single kingdom  in region between the Tugela and Pongola rivers, exte= nding into the Drakensberg foothills. Shaka expanded his kingdom through his superior military. Through intens= ive drilling and extreme discipline, he created very efficient regiments. = <= span style=3D'font-size:56%'>He changed their principal weapon from a throwing = spear to a smaller stabbing spear.
Shaka’s regiments best weapon was the use of= speed and surprise.
His use of regiments went beyond combat, they were= used for political control= to create a centralized kingdom where he had ultimate authority. <= /span>= He replaced the hereditary chiefs of newly conquer= ed kingdoms with his appointed royal officials which were called = indunas. These indunas answered directly to Shaka.
<= span style=3D'font-size:56%'>Shaka also took control over the newly conquered  areas regiments.
<= span style=3D'font-size:56%;visibility:hidden'>
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Shaka and the rise of the Zulu Kingdom cont.
•<= /span>
•<= /span>The one exception to hereditary chiefs losing cont= rol of his regiments was Mzi= likazi of the Khumalo. He would later withdraw his regiments from the Zulu and invade the highveld.&#= 13;
•<= /span>The young men and women captured were incorporated= into Shaka’s regiments.
•<= /span>These regiments would be used in the production of= the state. Men herded cattle and = hunted ivory, while women cultivated the fields. = After a number of years of service the regiments w= ere disbanded and allowed to mar= ry and start homesteads, but they were liable to = future military call up, like a modern reservist.&= #13;
•<= /span>Regimental towns were formed in strategic areas of= the kingdom.
•<= /span>This regiment system helped break down regional identities, creating loyalty to the king and a form of Zulu nationality.
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Shaka and the rise of the Zulu Kingdom cont.
In 1828 Shaka was assassinated by his half-brother= Dingane, who the proclaimed himself king. Dingane lacked his brother’s military and political leadership. This = helped lead to the decline of Zulu empire, which was already on the downslide due to fact it had already expanded to its extant and was no l= onger capturing new cattle and booty. = Finally, the invasion of the lowveld by the Boers = in (1837-1838) put the Zulus on the edge of destructi= on.
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
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Other kingdoms of the Mfecane
Swazi kingdom
After being expelled to the north of the Pongola, Sobhuza’s Ngwane founded the Swazi Kingdom. Named after his successor Mswati 1st= . He ruled the Swazi from = (1839-1865).
The raiding-state of Gaza was formed by Soshangane= , a former Ndwandwe military commander.
Hlubi of Mpangazitha
Suffered many raids from Zulu under Dingane and we= re forced over the Drakensbergs a= nd into Sotho highveld in (1821-1822).
Ngwane of Matiwane
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%'>Also forced to flee over the Drakensbergs from the Zulus.
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
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The Difaqane
Sotho chiefdo= ms and the e= astern highveld
•<= /span>The Sotho were a group of small independent chiefd= oms of the southern highveld = with the largest concentration around the fertile = valley of the Caledon.
•<= /span>Each chiefdom had its own system of age initiation regiments to perform military and public works.
•<= /span>Warfare amongst the Sotho consisted mostly of catt= le raiding with little = long term consequence.
•<= /span>In 1821, the fleeing Hlubi and Ngwane attacked the= se small chiefdoms of the S= otho with little resistance.
At the same time, armed and mounted Griqua and Kora slavers were raiding up the Orange River valley.
•<= /span>The combination of these two events sent destructi= on through the highveld, with neighboring chiefdoms turning against each other in = desperation.
The result of the Difaqane of the highveld, was the emergence of a strong = leader named Moshoeshoe of the Mokoteli clan.
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Between (1821-1823) Moshoeshoe makes his headquarters in the mountains east of the Caledon.= His military reputation brings many people seeking protection. In 1824, after continued attacks by Tlokwa and Ngw= ane Moshoeshoe moves his followers to the flat-top mou= ntain Thaba-Bosiu. Thaba-Bosiu was a strong defensive position with a= commanding view of the surrounding fertile valley.=
<= span style=3D'font-size:75%'>Thaba-Bosiu would be the capital of Sotho Kingdom.=
<= span style=3D'font-size:75%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
Moshoeshoe and the rise of the Sotho Ki= ngdom
Mosho= esoe
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Moshoeshoe and the rise of the Sotho Ki= ngdom cont.
•<= /span>Moshoeshoe controlled his kingdom through a confederation of semi-in= dependent chiefdoms bringing some stability the highveld.
•<= /span>Chiefdoms who sought Moshoeshoe’s protection= would be incorporated into t= he Sotho Kingdom, leaving hereditary chiefs in place to raise their own regiments, while acknowle= dging Moshoeshoe’s overall authority. <= /span>
•<= /span>Hereditary chiefdoms were required to send tribute= to the capital.
•<= /span>Moshoeshoe formed a complex web of marriage allian= ces which resulted in most S= otho chiefs being related to him.
•<= /span>In 1830’s Moshoeshoe invited missionaries fr= om Cape Colony to settle = in the Sotho Kingdom. One reason was to stave off raids by = the Griqa and Kora in the lower Caledon. The secon= d and most important was acce= ss to the trade of horses and firearms.
•<= /span>By the 1830’s, the Sotho with their Guns and horses are a formida= ble power in South Africa.
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The Difaqane on the Western Highveld
Fokeng, Hlako= ena and Tuang
•<= /span> In 1= 823 these three dislocated groups of the Difaqane will converge = = on the Tlhaping capital of Dithakong. <= /span>
•<= /span>The Tlhaping seek the assistance of a missionary R= obert Moffatt and Griqua armed a= nd mounted soldiers to put down the raid. This event enhances reputation of missionaries having a= ccess to soldiers with guns.
•<= /span>The defeated Fokeng, Hlakoena and Tuang resettle i= n the south by the Vaal river.= 3;
•<= /span>Out of this conflict will arise another strong lea= der, Sebetwane.
Sebetwane = ;
•<= /span>His compact band of raiders known as “Kololo” will raid northern Tswana states between Kalahari and Limpopo and will finally conquer and settle= the Lozi Kingdom of the Zambezi valley.
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The Difaqane on the Western Highveld
Mzilikazi and the Nde= bele Kingdom
•<= /span>Mzilikazi was only chief left in control of his own regiments by Shaka after the wars between  Mthethwa, Ndwan= de and Ngwane in the period (1816-1819).
•<= /span>In 1822 he will lead his regiments to the highveld= where he will found the only ma= jor Nguni state on the highveld.
•<= /span>Named by the Sotho, “Matabele” later a= dopted by the Khumalo as “= Amandebele or Ndebele”.
•<= /span>Mzilikazi built Zulu style regiments using many Sotho-Tswana men and women.&= #13;
•<= /span>He set up regimental viilages like the Zulu, used = to collect tribute and tend to herds of cattle.
•<= /span>Between 1838-1840 the Ndebele will be forced out o= f the highveld by a combina= tion of Boer, Griqua and Zulu attacks.
•<= /span>The Ndebele will then migrate and take over the Sh= ona Roszi state where Mzilika= zi will duplicate is efforts from the highveld.
•<= /span>
•<= /span>
•<= /span>
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g_scaleHyperlinks=3D(document.all.tags("AREA").length>0) if( g_scaleHyperlinks ) InitHLinkArray() if( g_scaleInFrame||(IsWin("PPTSld") && parent.IsFullScrMode() ) ) document.body.scroll=3D"no" _RSW() if( IsWin("PPTSld") && parent.IsFullScrMode() ) FullScrInit(); =09 MakeSldVis(); ChkAutoAdv() if( runAnimations ) { if( document.all("NSPlay") ) document.all("NSPlay").autoStart =3D false; if( sld.filters && sld.filters.revealtrans ) setTimeout( "document.body.start()", sld.filters.revealtrans.duration * = 1000 ); else document.body.start(); } } function MakeSldVis()=20 { var fTrans=3Dg_showAnimation && SldHasTrans() if( fTrans )=09 { if( g_bgSound ) { idx=3Dg_bgSound.indexOf(","); pptSound.src=3Dg_bgSound.substr( 0, idx ); pptSound.loop=3D -(parseInt(g_bgSound.substr(idx+1))); } SlideObj.filters.revealtrans.Apply()=09 }"visible" if( fTrans ) SlideObj.filters.revealtrans.Play() } function MakeNotesVis()=20 { if( !IsNts() ) return false=20"none" nObj =3D document.all.item("NotesObj") parent.SetHasNts(0) if( nObj ) {=20"" parent.SetHasNts(1) } return 1 } function ChkAutoAdv() { if(SldHasTrans()) SlideObj.onfilterchange=3DAutoAdv else AutoAdv() } function AutoAdv() { if(!IsWin("PPTSld") || !gUseSldTimings )return var sld=3DGetCurSld() if( (sld.mAdvDelay>0) && !parent.IsFramesMode() ) setTimeout("parent.GoToNextSld()",sld.mAdvDelay) } function GetObj(id) { if(g_supportsPPTHTML) return document.all(id); else return document.getElementById(id); } function SldHasTrans() { return !=3D ""; } function GetSldId() { return sId=3Dlocation.href.substring( stIndexOf('/')+1) } function HideMenu() { if( frames["PPTSld"] && PPTSld.document.all.item("ctx= tmenu") &&!=3D"none" ) { PPTSld.ctxtmenu.styl= e.display=3D'none'; return true } return false } function IsWin( name ) { return =3D=3D name } function IsNts() { return IsWin("PPTNts") } function IsSldOrNts() { return( IsWin("PPTSld")||IsWin("PPTNts") ) } function SupportsPPTAnimation() { return( navigator.platform =3D=3D "Win32"= && navigator.appVersion.indexOf("Windows")>0 ) } function SupportsPPTHTML() { var appVer=3Dnavigator.appVersion, msie=3DappVer.indexOf("MSIE "), ver=3D0 if( msie >=3D 0 ) ver=3DparseFloat( appVer.substring( msie+5, appVer.indexOf(";",msie) ) ) else ver=3DparseInt(appVer) return( ver >=3D 4 && msie >=3D 0 ) } function _RSW() { if( !g_supportsPPTHTML || IsNts() || ( !g_scaleInFrame && (!IsWin("PPTSld") || !parent.IsFullScrMode()) ) ) return var padding=3D0; if( IsWin("PPTSld") && parent.IsFramesMode() ) padding=3D6 cltWidth=3Ddocument.body.clientWidth-padding cltHeight=3Ddocument.body.clientHeight-padding factor=3D(1.0*cltWidth)/g_origW if( cltHeight < g_origH*factor ) factor=3D(1.0*cltHeight)/g_origH newSize =3D g_origSz * factor if( newSize < 1 ) newSize=3D1 s.fontSize=3DnewSize+"px" s.posWidth=3Dg_origW*factor s.posHeight=3Dg_origH*factor s.posLeft=3D(cltWidth-s.posWidth+padding)/2 s.posTop=3D(cltHeight-s.posHeight+padding)/2 if( g_scaleHyperlinks ) ScaleHyperlinks( factor ) } function _InitAnimations() { animRuntimeInstalled =3D ''+document.body.localTime !=3D 'undefined'; isFullScreen =3D ( =3D=3D "PPTSld") && !parent.IsFramesMode(); g_animUseRuntime =3D g_showAnimation && animRuntimeInstalled && !(isFullSc= reen && parent.IsSldVisited()); if( g_animUseRuntime ) { collSeq =3D document.all.tags("seq"); if( collSeq !=3D null ) { for(ii=3D0;ii numSlds ) gSldJumpIdx =3D numSlds; if ( gSldJumpIdx >=3D 0 ) { if ( gSldJumpIdx =3D=3D 0 ) gSldJumpIdx =3D 1; var jumpTo =3D parseInt(gSldJumpIdx); gSldJump =3D 0; gSldJumpIdx =3D ""; win.GoToSld( parent.GetSldList().mList[jumpTo-1].mSldHref ) } } } function _KDH() { if( event.keyCode =3D=3D 8 ) { event.returnValue =3D 0; parent.GoToPrevSld(); } } function DocumentOnClick() { if( IsNts() || parent.HideMenu() ) return; if( ( g_allowAdvOnClick && !parent.IsFramesMode() ) || (event && (event.keyCode=3D=3D32) ) ) parent.GoToNextSld(); } var g_supportsPPTHTML =3D SupportsPPTHTML(), g_scaleInFrame =3D 1, gId=3D""= , g_bgSound=3D"", g_scaleHyperlinks =3D false, g_allowAdvOnClick =3D 1, g_showInBrowser = =3D 0, gLoopCont =3D 0, gUseSldTimings =3D 1; var g_showAnimation =3D g_supportsPPTHTML && SupportsPPTAnimation() && ( (w="PPTSld" && !parent.IsFramesMode()) || g_showInBrowser );va= r g_animManager =3D null; var g_animUseRuntime =3D false; var g_animItemsToHide, g_animInteractiveItems, g_animSlideTime; var g_animMainSequence =3D null; var ENDSHOW_MESG=3D"End of slide show, click to exit.", SCREEN_MODE=3D"Fram= es", gIsEndShow=3D0, NUM_VIS_SLDS=3D14, SCRIPT_HREF=3D"script.js", FULLSCR_= HREF=3D"fullscreen.htm"; var gCurSld =3D gPrevSld =3D 1, g_offset =3D 0, gNtsOpen =3D gHasNts =3D gO= tlTxtExp =3D 0, gHasNarration =3D 0, gOtlOpen =3D true window.gPPTHTML=3DSupportsPPTHTML() var gMainDoc=3Dnew Array(new hrefList("slide0001.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList(= "slide0002.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0003.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("= slide0004.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0005.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("s= lide0006.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0007.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("sl= ide0008.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0009.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("sli= de0010.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0011.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slid= e0012.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0013.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide= 0015.htm",1,-1,1)); /********************************************* Frameset functions These functions control slide navigation and state of the frameset. **********************************************/ function FullScrInit() { g_allowAdvOnClick =3D GetCurSld().mAdvOnClk"black" document.oncontextmenu=3Dparent._CM; document.onkeydown =3D _KDH; document.ondragstart=3DCancel document.onselectstart=3DCancel self.focus() } function Redirect( frmId ) {=09 var str=3Ddocument.location.hash,idx=3Dstr.indexOf('#'), sId=3DGetSldId() if(idx>=3D0) str=3Dstr.substr(1); if( !=3D frmId && ( sId !=3D str) ) { obj =3D GetObj("Main-File") window.location.href=3Dobj.href+"#"+sId return 1 } return 0 } var MHTMLPrefix =3D CalculateMHTMLPrefix();=20 function CalculateMHTMLPrefix() { if ( document.location.protocol =3D=3D 'mhtml:') {=20 href=3Dnew String(document.location.href)=20 Start=3Dhref.indexOf('!')+1=20 End=3Dhref.lastIndexOf('/')+1=20 if (End < Start)=20 return href.substring(0, Start)=20 else=20 return href.substring(0, End)=20 } return ''; } function GetTags(base,tag) { if(g_supportsPPTHTML) return base.all.tags(tag); else return base.getElementsByTagName(tag); } function UpdNtsPane(){ if(frames["PPTNts"]) PPTNts.location.replace( MHTMLP= refix+GetHrefObj( gCurSld ).mNtsHref ) } function UpdNavPane( sldIndex ){ if(gNavLoaded) PPTNav.UpdNav() } function UpdOtNavPane(){ if(gOtlNavLoaded) PPTOtlNav.UpdOtlNav() } function UpdOtlPane(){ if(gOtlLoaded) PPTOtl.UpdOtl() } function SetHasNts( fVal ) { if( gHasNts !=3D fVal ) { gHasNts=3DfVal UpdNavPane() } } function ToggleOtlText() { gOtlTxtExp=3D!gOtlTxtExp UpdOtlPane() } function ClearMedia() { // Clear any sounds playing before launching another browser window. Other= wise, // in fullscreen mode, you'll continue to hear the sound in the frames mod= e. if (PPTSld.pptSound) PPTSld.pptSound.loop =3D 0; } function FullScreen() {=20 if ( PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) PPTSld.document.body.pause(); ClearMedia(); var href =3D ( document.location.protocol =3D=3D 'mhtml:') ? FULLSCR_HREF = : FULLSCR_HREF+"#"+GetHrefObj(gCurSld).mSldHref; if(PPTNav.event.ctrlKey) { var w =3D (window.screen.availWidth * 1.0) / 2.0 var h =3D w * (PPTSld.g_origH * 1.0) / PPTSld.g_origW win =3D MHTMLPrefix+href,null,"toolbar=3D0,resizable=3D1,top= =3D0,left=3D0," + "width=3D"+ w + ",height=3D" + h ); if( win.document.body && PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) win.document.body.PPTSldFrameset=3Dwindow; } else { win =3D MHTMLPrefix+href,null,"fullscreen=3Dyes" ); if( win.document.body && PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) win.document.body.PPTSldFrameset=3Dwindow; } } function ToggleVNarration() { rObj=3DPPTSld.document.all("NSPlay") if( rObj && !PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) { if( (rObj.playState =3D=3D 1)||(rObj.playState =3D=3D 0) ) rObj.Play() else if( rObj.playState =3D=3D 2 ) rObj.Pause() else return; } else if( PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) { narObj =3D PPTSld.document.all("narrationID") if( narObj ) narObj.togglePause() } } function GetCurSldNum() { =20 obj=3DGetHrefObj(gCurSld) if( obj.mOrigVis =3D=3D 1 ) return obj.mSldIdx else =20 return gCurSld } function GetNumSlds() { =20 if( GetHrefObj(gCurSld).mOrigVis =3D=3D 1 ) return GetSldList().mNumVisSlds; else return GetSldList().mList.length } function GetSldNum( href ) { for(ii=3D0; ii 1 ) PopSldList(); else if( !IsFramesMode() ) { if( gLoopCont ) GoToFirst() else EndShow() } } function GoToPrevSld() { ii=3DgCurSld-1 if( ii > 0 ) { obj=3DGetHrefObj(ii) while ( obj && ( obj.mVis =3D=3D 0 ) && ( ii>0 ) ) obj=3DGetHrefObj(--ii) if( ii =3D=3D 0 ) ii=3D1 GoToSldNum(ii) } } function GoToFirst(){ GoToSld( GetHrefObj(1).mSldHref ) } function GoToLast() { ii=3DGetSldList().mList.length if( ii !=3D gCurSld ) GoToSld( GetHrefObj(ii).mSldHref ) } function GoToSldNum( num ) { if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue obj =3D GetHrefObj( num ) obj.mVis=3D1 gPrevSld=3DgCurSld gCurSld =3D num; PPTSld.location.replace(MHTMLPrefix+obj.mSldHref) if( IsFramesMode() ) { UpdNavPane(); UpdOtlPane(); UpdNtsPane() } } function GoToSld( href ) { if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue GetHrefObj( GetSldNum(href) ).mVis=3D1 PPTSld.location.replace(MHTMLPrefix+href) } function SldUpdated( id ) { if( id =3D=3D GetHrefObj(gCurSld).mSldHref ) return gPrevSld=3DgCurSld gCurSld=3DGetSldNum(id) if( IsFramesMode() ) { UpdNavPane(); UpdOtlPane(); UpdNtsPane() } } function PrevSldViewed(){ GoToSld( GetHrefObj(gPrevSld).mSldHref ) } function HasPrevSld() { return ( gIsEndShow || ( gCurSld !=3D 1 && GetHrefO= bj( gCurSld-1 ).mVis =3D=3D 1 )||( GetCurSldNum() > 1 ) ) } function HasNextSld() { return (GetCurSldNum() !=3D GetNumSlds()) } function CloseWindow() { if( HideMenu() ) return; =09 var event =3D PPTSld.event; if( !IsFramesMode() && event && (event.keyCode=3D=3D27 || event.keyCode=3D= =3D32 || event.type=3D=3D"click" ) ) window.close( self ); CatchNumKeys( self, event ); } function Unload() { gIsEndShow=3D0; } function SetupEndShow() { gIsEndShow=3D1; PPTSld.document.body.scroll=3D"no"; PPTSld.document.onkeypress=3DCloseWindow; PPTSld.document.onclick=3DCloseWindow; PPTSld.document.oncontextmenu=3D_CM; } function EndShow() { if( IsFramesMode() ) return if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue doc=3DPPTSld.document var dir =3D doc.body.dir if( dir !=3D "rtl" ) dir =3D "ltr"; doc.writeln('


') doc.close() } function SetSldVisited(){ GetSldList().mList[gCurSld-1].mVisited=3Dtrue } function IsSldVisited(){ return GetSldList().mList[gCurSld-1].mVisited } function hrefList( sldHref, visible, advDelay, advClk ) { this.mSldHref=3D this.mNtsHref =3D sldHref this.mOrigVis=3D this.mVis =3D visible this.mVisited=3D false this.mAdvDelay=3D advDelay this.mAdvOnClk=3D advClk } function SldList(arr,curSld,fEnd) { this.mCurSld =3D curSld; this.mList =3D new Array(); var idx =3D 1; for(ii=3D0;ii 0) { PushSldList(sldList,fEnd); gCurSld =3D 1; } else if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue } function PushSldList(arr,fEnd) { var ii =3D gSldStack.length; gSldStack[ii] =3D new SldList(arr,gCurSld,fEnd); GoToSld( gSldStack[ii].mList[0].mSldHref ); } function PopSldList() { if (gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1].fEndShow) EndShow() else { gCurSld =3D gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1].mCurSld; gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1] =3D null; gSldStack.length--; var sldList =3D gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1]; GoToSld( sldList.mList[gCurSld - 1].mSldHref ); } } var custShowList=3Dnew Array(); /********************************************* Navigation button implementation There are 2 types of buttons: ImgBtn, TxtBtn implemented as function objects. They share a similiar interface so the event handlers can call SetActive, for example, on a button=20 object without needing to know exactly=20 what type of button it is. **********************************************/ //---------------------------------- function ImgBtn( oId,bId,w,action ) //---------------------------------- { var t=3Dthis t.Perform =3D _IBP t.SetActive =3D _IBSetA t.SetInactive=3D _IBSetI t.SetPressed =3D _IBSetP t.SetDisabled=3D _IBSetD t.Enabled =3D _IBSetE t.ChangeIcon =3D null t.UserAction =3D action t.ChgState =3D _IBUI t.mObjId =3D oId t.mBorderId=3D bId t.mWidth =3D w t.mIsOn =3D t.mCurState =3D 0 } function _IBSetA() { if( this.mIsOn ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gHiliteClr,gShadowClr,2 ) } } function _IBSetI() { if( this.mIsOn ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,1 ) } } function _IBSetP() { if( this.mIsOn ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gShadowClr,gHiliteClr,2 ); } } function _IBSetD() { =20 obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0 ) } function _IBSetE( state ) { var t=3Dthis GetObj( t.mBorderId ).style.visibility=3D"visible" if( state !=3D t.mIsOn ) { t.mIsOn=3Dstate if( state ) t.SetInactive() else t.SetDisabled() } } function _IBP() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn ) { if( t.UserAction !=3D null ) t.UserAction() if( t.ChangeIcon ) { obj=3DGetObj(t.mObjId) if( t.ChangeIcon() )*t.mWidth else*t.mWidth } t.SetActive() } =20 } function _IBUI( clr1,clr2,nextState ) { var t=3Dthis SetBorder( GetObj( t.mBorderId ),clr1,clr2 ) obj=3DGetObj( t.mObjId )*t.mWidth-obj= .style.posTop t.mCurState=3DnextState return obj } //----------------------------------------- function TxtBtn( oId,oeId,action,chkState ) //----------------------------------------- { var t=3Dthis t.Perform =3D _TBP t.SetActive =3D _TBSetA t.SetInactive=3D _TBSetI t.SetPressed =3D _TBSetP t.SetDisabled=3D _TBSetD t.SetEnabled =3D _TBSetE t.GetState =3D chkState t.UserAction =3D action t.ChgState =3D _TBUI t.mObjId =3D oId t.m_elementsId=3D oeId t.mIsOn =3D 1 } function _TBSetA() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn && !t.GetState() ) t.ChgState( gHiliteClr,gShadowClr,0,0 ) } function _TBSetI() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn && !t.GetState() ) t.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0,0 ) } function _TBSetP() { if( this.mIsOn ) this.ChgState( gShadowClr,gHiliteClr,1,1 ) } function _TBSetD() { =20 this.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0,0 ) this.mIsOn =3D 0 } function _TBSetE() { var t=3Dthis if( !t.GetState() ) t.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0,0 ) else t.ChgState( gShadowClr,gHiliteClr,1,1 ) t.mIsOn =3D 1 } function _TBP() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn ) {=20 if( t.UserAction !=3D null ) t.UserAction() if( !t.GetState ) return if( t.GetState() ) t.SetPressed() else t.SetActive() } =20 } function _TBUI( clr1,clr2,lOffset,tOffset ) { SetBorder( GetObj( this.mObjId ),clr1,clr2 ) Offset( GetObj( this.m_elementsId ),lOffset,tOffset ) } function Offset( obj, top, left ){; ft } function SetBorder( obj, upperLeft, lowerRight ) {; s.borderStyle =3D "solid" s.borderWidth =3D 1=20 s.borderLeftColor =3D s.borderTopColor =3D upperLeft s.borderBottomColor=3D s.borderRightColor =3D lowerRight } function GetBtnObj(){ return gBtnArr[] } function BtnOnOver(){ b=3DGetBtnObj(); if( b !=3D null ) b.SetActive() } function BtnOnDown(){ b=3DGetBtnObj(); if( b !=3D null ) b.SetPressed() } function BtnOnOut(){ b=3DGetBtnObj(); if( b !=3D null ) b.SetInactive() } function BtnOnUp() { b=3DGetBtnObj() if( b !=3D null ) b.Perform() else Upd() } function GetNtsState(){ return parent.gNtsOpen } function GetOtlState(){ return parent.gOtlOpen } function GetOtlTxtState(){ return parent.gOtlTxtExp } function NtsBtnSetFlag( fVal ) { s=3Ddocument.all.item( this.m_flagId ).style s.display=3D"none" if( fVal ) s.display=3D"" else s.display=3D"none" } function _BSetA_Border(){ b =3D gBtnArr[this.mObjId]; if( b !=3D null ) b.S= etActive() } function _BSetI_Border(){ b =3D gBtnArr[this.mObjId]; if( b !=3D null ) b.S= etInactive() } function _BSetP_Border(){ b =3D gBtnArr[this.mObjId]; if( b !=3D null ) b.S= etPressed() } function _BSetA_BorderImg() {=20 b =3D gBtnArr[this.mBorderId]=20 if( b !=3D null && this.mIsOn && !b.GetState() ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gHiliteClr,gShadowClr,2 ) } } function _BSetI_BorderImg() {=20 b =3D gBtnArr[this.mBorderId] if( b !=3D null && this.mIsOn && !b.GetState() ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,1 ) } } var gHiliteClr=3D"THREEDHIGHLIGHT",gShadowClr=3D"THREEDSHADOW",gFaceClr=3D"= THREEDFACE" var gBtnArr =3D new Array() gBtnArr["nb_otl"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_otl","nb_otlElem",parent.ToggleOtlPan= e,GetOtlState ) gBtnArr["nb_otlElem"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_otl","nb_otlElem",parent.ToggleOt= lPane,GetOtlState ) gBtnArr["nb_nts"] =3D new ImgBtn( "nb_nts","nb_ntsBorder",10,parent.ToggleN= tsPane ) gBtnArr["nb_nts"].SetActive =3D _BSetA_BorderImg; gBtnArr["nb_nts"].SetInactive =3D _BSetI_BorderImg; gBtnArr["nb_ntsBorder"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_ntsBorder","nb_ntsElem",parent.= ToggleNtsPane,GetNtsState ) gBtnArr["nb_ntsElem"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_ntsBorder","nb_ntsElem",parent.To= ggleNtsPane,GetNtsState ) gBtnArr["nb_prevBorder"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_prev"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_prev","n= b_prevBorder",30,parent.GoToPrevSld ) gBtnArr["nb_nextBorder"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_next"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_next","n= b_nextBorder",30,parent.GoToNextSld ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshw"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_sldshw","nb_sldshwBorder",18,parent= .FullScreen ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshwBorder"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_sldshw","nb_sldshwBorder",pa= rent.FullScreen,null ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshwBorder"].SetActive =3D _BSetA_Border; gBtnArr["nb_sldshwBorder"].SetInactive =3D _BSetI_Border; gBtnArr["nb_sldshwText"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_sldshw","nb_sldshwText",parent= .FullScreen,null ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshwText"].SetActive =3D _BSetA_Border; gBtnArr["nb_sldshwText"].SetInactive =3D _BSetI_Border; gBtnArr["nb_voice"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_voiceBorder"] =3D new ImgBtn( "nb_voice= ","nb_voiceBorder",18,parent.ToggleVNarration ) gBtnArr["nb_otlTxtBorder"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_otlTxt"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_otlT= xt","nb_otlTxtBorder",23,parent.ToggleOtlText ) gBtnArr["nb_ntsBorder"].m_flagId=3D "nb_nts" gBtnArr["nb_ntsBorder"].SetFlag =3D NtsBtnSetFlag gBtnArr["nb_otlTxt"].ChangeIcon=3D GetOtlTxtState /********************************************* Context menu implementation _CM() is the function that's hooked up to the oncontextmenu event. Once we're asked to show the menu, we first build it by creating DIVs on-the-fly. Then we position it=20 within the screen area so it doesn't get clipped. Creating the DIVs using createElement() means we don't have to write out any extra HTML into the slide HTML files. **********************************************/ var sNext=3D"Next",sPrev=3D"Previous",sEnd=3D"End Show",sFont=3D"Arial",sAr= row=3D"Arrow",sFreeform=3D"Freeform",sRect=3D"Rectangle",sOval=3D"Oval" function ShowMenu() { BuildMenu(); var doc=3DPPTSld.document.body,x=3DPPTSld.event.clientX+doc.scrollLeft,y= =3DPPTSld.event.clientY+doc.scrollTop m =3D PPTSld.document.all.item("ctxtmenu") if( (x+m.scrollWidth > doc.clientWidth)&&(x-m.scrollWidth > 0) ) if( (y+m.scrollHeight > doc.clientHeight)&&(y-m.scrollHeight > 0) )"" } function _CM() { if( !parent.IsFullScrMode() ) return; if(!PPTSld.event.ctrlKey) { ShowMenu() return false } else HideMenu() } function BuildMenu() { if( PPTSld.document.all.item("ctxtmenu") ) return var mObj=3DCreateItem( PPTSld.document.body )"ctxtmenu""hidden" var s.position=3D"absolute" s.cursor=3D"default" s.width=3D"120px" SetCMBorder(mObj,"menu","black") var iObj=3DCreateItem( mObj ) SetCMBorder( iObj, "threedhighlight","threedshadow" ) CreateMenuItem( iObj,sNext,M_GoNextSld,M_True ) CreateMenuItem( iObj,sPrev,M_GoPrevSld,M_HasPrevSld ) =09 CreateSeparator( iObj ) CreateMenuItem( iObj,sEnd,M_End,M_True )"visible" } function Cancel() { window.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue; window.event.returnVa= lue=3Dfalse } function Highlight() { ChangeClr("activecaption","threedhighlight") } function Deselect() { ChangeClr("threedface","menutext") } function Perform() { e=3DPPTSld.event.srcElement if( e.type=3D=3D"menuitem" && e.IsActive() ) e.Action() else PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue } function ChangeClr( bg,clr ) { e=3DPPTSld.event.srcElement if( e.type=3D=3D"menuitem" && e.IsActive() ) { } } function M_HasPrevSld() { return( parent.HasPrevSld() ) } function M_GoNextSld() { if( gIsEndShow ) M_End(); else GoToNextSld() } function M_GoPrevSld() { if( gIsEndShow ) { gIsEndShow=3D0; history.back();= PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue; } else GoToPrevSld() } function M_True() { return true } function M_End() { window.close( self ) } function CreateMenuItem( node,text,action,eval ) { var e=3DCreateItem( node ) e.type=3D"menuitem" e.Action=3Daction e.IsActive=3Deval e.innerHTML=3Dtext if( !e.IsActive() )"threedshadow" e.onclick=3DPerform e.onmouseover=3DHighlight e.onmouseout=3DDeselect; s.fontFamily=3DsFont s.fontSize=3D"9pt" s.paddingLeft=3D2 } function CreateSeparator( node ) { var sObj=3DCreateItem( node ) SetCMBorder(sObj,"menu","menu") var s.borderTopColor=3D"threedshadow" s.borderBottomColor=3D"threedhighlight" s.height=3D1 s.fontSize=3D"0px" } function CreateItem( node ) { var elem=3DPPTSld.document.createElement("DIV") node.insertBefore( elem ) return elem } function SetCMBorder( o,ltClr,rbClr ) { var s.backgroundColor=3D"menu" s.borderStyle=3D"solid" s.borderWidth=3D1 s.borderColor=3DltClr+" "+rbClr+" "+rbClr+" "+ltClr } ------=_NextPart_01C66D2E.A4D4A3C0 Content-Location: file:///C:/706BB24E/State-buildinganddestruction_files/fullscreen.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" ------=_NextPart_01C66D2E.A4D4A3C0 Content-Location: file:///C:/706BB24E/State-buildinganddestruction_files/buttons.gif Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Type: image/gif R0lGODlhWAESAPf4AAAAAIAAAACAAICAAAAAgIAAgACAgICAgAQEBISEBASEBISEhAQEhMTExAQE /KTM9Pz8/ERERPz8BAT8/KSkpGRkhMTcxCRkxAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAMDAwP8AAAD/AP//AAAA//8A/wD//////yH5BAEAAPgALAAAAABYARIA QAj/APEJHEiwoMGDCBMqXMiwocOHECNKnEixosWLGCEiQKCRo8YDIEHig2DxAD4LKD1avDDhgUuV GUOGbHBR5QGYFBG4fHAB58EKECJEwCfUYAWPFGAygLCRKQIIUKM6WAohKUGgCikcFWh1INWoYKVS 7SrQ41GbIhGYLAuVQVOoC+IyXUuUAkG1HE3KFDhAwkgJc5/qDZmxsOHDiBMrXsy4sePDGyP7lChT 5MULmDPnlDw5YmW6FTNrfgi0aNGEZPEtbfo2bNTUpYeeRph69dPWrqvCNFuBIGG1A59CYPAVQtwF cw0OxWdTIOiBCQAjaAB17fOFII8voGmRc+eOkilm/z9OvTtnjN4hYk1YoT3H2rnBOphPAB9skgq3 2lcaX/5YnJVt9BloAar12UEIRGCZdQghMABI1Tn32IQUVthYexhmqGGGMBHAgIfEhSiiiATAtOGJ GnYI4ogsEldicAYOGNJGZaml3Y0L3NTZUBz1xlB0PUoUI0jlVWRSVN89xBKSGB1YU1TMoRfVBEle hR9HQs1GEHxQ3RZZbveZthxt/LEmXHyp5XWABSCpaRJwbM13gAACPHVccgJFgF+NEhqUAEkQSCfc ddhVhh5dVTaEAEsTUNlkZUWKN9BNGDE6QU8OrSdbllzpxyVTTrU21Uj3scfhp7nNpyoDaTIEJ3P9 If8J2kbLNYegg9JRBwGhFvbq66+ZUiDssMQWK2yHxiZLrInKNotss8l+B5yBrr5p2UIJvortANoC 6+234IbLla/elRtZjeamh5CC3Sb0YLvixivvYkDFGlZqBNh7r4n6goVvv6/ZlCicN+kL71ALTnpQ dCIZp7CihkLA3UQmoWRBogyxtBPGCTnZncVR1rSTo5nuydC/Eo8kUH+lOoTyyvjoCuZu+PjYIKLD rZybtrM1d10C0QXKEVz48GrQkEeWdFJKlbb0UmEeV0SzyC6RvNB646LWIVjUNeC1zAFb+RDKXksM 9r531bwmpQW9+hQDDsx5pqwDRWBXcFES2hc+gEn/wJGdEEWdE6LoWcoxQweaTNmkhydkKaYMYY2Q p1unbLl/pPKbn3v7EZRvrKvqlja2ONvrtoIw9tn2g32/tQBlhtYkU+MNikZ7QYlPDPuMldpOmuJX nVo5VF3HjI+q89mteX5IDd/fVFClma5kiE4f2XUJhlz09gj2NbTDRifkmu7zXjR++RVJ/lPznuvr QH2iD6S+UewP9Dnon6d2NLwN8n90BB6hC68cFMCHoe+ACASP9c4DowUyEF0OPFcDI0ij/VXPaAKC UfhS95AKGoQ7IBRICI1HwhGaUIQoLGEKT6jCFrLwhSuMoQtlCMMZ2rCGOKShDm+4wxzy8Ic+DGIP B4cIRCKGMCAAOy== ------=_NextPart_01C66D2E.A4D4A3C0 Content-Location: file:///C:/706BB24E/State-buildinganddestruction_files/frame.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; 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